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❶It was the first building in New York to earn this designation.

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Natural esources Defense Council. Green Housing Marketplace the Economic. In a field like housing construction, whether it is tradition or green, human resources have the highest importance. Their quality and experience is reflected in the quality of the houses they build. Smaller construction companies cannot afford the highest skilled personnel, which creates a major disadvantage. It is difficult to say whether these companies are financially sound or not on medium term and long-term.

The financial investments required by constructions and the financial sustainability of these companies on long-term suggest that there are no financial difficulties affecting large construction companies.

But these companies are also subjected to the economic and financial crisis and also to the fluctuations of the market. Financial possibilities of customers have a direct influence on the financial performance of construction companies.

Given the global market conditions, it is expected that the incomes of construction companies will decrease. The success strategy of large construction companies is a…… [Read More]. Green Construction the Current Trend. The use of renewable materials is excellent when possible as it ensures that the environmental costs of building the house will be paid off in months instead of decades BEST The use of reclaimed materials is even better, however, as there is absolutely no additional environmental involved in using, for instance, a century-old dance floor as the hardwood covering in a new living room.

Technological innovations also allow for much greater efficiency. Inert-gas windows and better insulation materials and techniques can improve the envelope of a house, drastically reducing the amount of energy needed to heat or cool a home or building ADPS Heating and cooling units themselves have also greatly improved in efficiency in recent years, with additional improvements still ongoing BEST The best ways…… [Read More].

Architecture Construction Thermal Isolation Materials. Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers MMVFs have been evaluated by cell magnetometry.

This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, , rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination.

The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…… [Read More]. Architecture of Boston Is a. Sedate it is definitely not. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline. Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" iboston.

The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. The churches of…… [Read More]. Architecture in NYC an Overview. New manufacturing processes made it possible to produce long beams of solid iron. Essentially, this gave architects a whole new set of building blocks to work with" Harris.

The development of elevators also played in the development of skyscrapers, because people could move more quickly and efficiently between floors, which is why skyscrapers are sometimes called "elevator buildings. Land was at a premium, and so building designers had to find new ways to put more buildings on less land. One solution was for the building to go up, instead of out. Green The Science - Literature.

Aristotelian influence predominated together with the wisdom and learning of other ancient writers, while the former was often used as a framework for intellectual debates which readily expanded both philosophy and other areas of knowledge Grant The European university system was established alongside monasteries as centres for the propagation of knowledge.

While Christianity did not recede as a dogmatic cultural system, it was not entirely determinative. Scholars could explore natural phenomena with an openness to past views, although often the learning acquired was purely rational rather than experimental, and was fused with a biblical worldview. In other words, the renaissance of the twelfth century played an integral part in transmitting scientific methodology within a predominantly religious environment that required thinkers to harmonise science with religion.

Other significant achievements took place in less…… [Read More]. Architecture Farnsworth House Mies van der ohe was one of the most well-known architects of 20th century. His birth took place in Germany and it was in that he came to United States.

Mies van der ohe is commonly known as "Mies" or "Ludwig Mies van der ohe. Farnsworth house is an example of contemporary architecture world. It was in when a doctor of Chicago hired Mies to design a home for her in the country side, which should be around 60 miles away from southwest of Chicago, i. The doctor's name…… [Read More]. Information Technology IT and Architecture.

The kinds of processes that are generally used have been created in recent decades in order to meet the needs of those who are focused on the quality of IT. With that in mind, IT architecture is the structure that is designed to actually operate and use IT properly.

Without it, the IT department of any company would not be nearly as successful, and that could cause the entire company to struggle.

An IT department has to be ready for nearly everything, because companies rely so much on technology that…… [Read More]. Profit Pools in the Green. It isn't one size fits all anymore, either, thanks to modern computer-design methods that let architects vary the prefab houses the way Lego blocks can be moved around. Modular homes are both unique and inexpensive -- a perfect option for new home buyers wishing to keep costs down in an uncertain market yet to amp up the beauty of their structures.

They are also good options for seniors, with downsized 'empty nest' dreams who want less home to support, but do not wish to go into a senior community. Profit pools exist at every juncture of the home industry, from green and customized construction, to improvements and modifications, even to demolitions -- the debris from gutted structures can be recycled to create…… [Read More]. Collaborative Consumption and Architecture. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum Wright, This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life.

Wheeler asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins. Yet the end of the 20th…… [Read More]. Laugier What Is Laugier's Justification. Why does Greenough object to American architects borrowing styles from Europe?

Which of his reasons do you consider valid, and which are unconvincing? The main objection Greenough has to American architects borrowing styles from Europe is that these styles are unsuited for the American background which is vast, open and different from Europe in terms of climate.

Furthermore, unlike the religiously homogenous states in Europe, America is very diverse and therefore much of ecclesiastical architecture has no application. Furthermore the author sees the misappropriation of designs for purposes other than their original purpose as the surest sign of decline. I am not convinced that the issue of appropriateness of a certain kind of architecture to its purpose is a legitimate objection.

Consider for example the rotunda of the Capitol Hill and compare it to the Vatican City's architecture. Why does Fathy consider the plant is a good analogy for…… [Read More]. Architectural Manifesto for the 21st. The impact architecture has on a society's spirit cannot be underestimated. Architecture it returning to nature oriented design. Its focal point is a man-made lake with islands connected by curving walkways. The lake offers a relaxing workday intermission for thousands of office employees.

Eight office towers provide 1. The towers are characterized by gently curving edges that evoke images of waves and watercourses. Various hotels in Las Vegas now emphasize water as part of its entertainment theme. For example the famous ellagio "dancing water fountains" are attractive and relaxing. Water as a source of relaxation explains…… [Read More]. Leed Increasingly the Drive to.

A variety of new and existing buildings have received LEED certification over the recent years. The following are ten examples of these awards: Gold Award, New Construction. In , Office Depot recognized its 39 million square feet of commercial real estate in North America was responsible for significant carbon emissions and a solid-waste footprint.

As a prototype for future construction retail locations, the Austin, Texas, construction followed the LEED certification process. Included is a roof that reflects sunlight and cools the store, requiring less energy for air conditioning; high-efficiency heating, ventilation and air conditioning units; water-efficient fixtures in restrooms; locally sourced and recycled materials; and skylights that adjust with the sun and provide natural day lighting.

And Europe in Steven Holl's Kiasma Kiasma the. In particular, "the scaling in Kiasma is based on the dimensions of the human body," with special attention to a limit of " centimeters, the viewing height" Kiasma Info: While the average visitor would likely not notice this feature, it serves to make the building the ideal space for reflection, because precisely by not noticing such elements as the height of certain artworks, the visitor is able…… [Read More].

A survey of his work and aesthetic philosophy The radical Dutch architect and architectural theorist Rem Koolhaas is often called one of the world's best -- and one of the world's most controversial -- architects.

Koolhaas is as much known for his aesthetic philosophy as he is for his work. Koolhaas does not merely wish to create buildings but also change the way in which the world conceptualizes buildings and aesthetic space. One of Koolhaas' most famous buildings is the French convention hall the Congrexpo, located in Euralille, a shopping and entertainment complex in Lille, France.

Architecture through the Ages Mesopotamia Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further Jackson 4. Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi B. Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws Beard This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly.

The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are; If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More].

Steven Holl Discussing the Practical. Imagining architecture as the structure upon which meaning grows and contributes to the phenomenon of a place is particularly helpful when investigating Holl's Linked Hybrid, because the design expresses a desire to meld the objective, concrete of the building itself to the experience of the residents living and moving within. Part of a slew of new developments born out of Beijing's revitalization as a result of its hosting of the Olympic games, Linked Hybrid is a mixed-use development consisting of "a ring of eight story towers, linked at the 20th floor by gentling sloping public sky bridges, lined with galleries, cafes, restaurants, bars and shops" Busari Each tower is rectangular, with some towers being additionally linked at the…… [Read More].

Sustainability Is Development That Meets. They want to maintain that livelihood. In addition to Sinclair and McDonough there are a wide range of architects and designers who are beginning to understand that their role is not simply to satisfy their own egos or curiosities but rather to help facilitate the sustainability of communities and human society at large.

The New York-ased consulting firm Terrapin right Green, for example, was started by four architects who recognized…… [Read More]. Guggenheim When Comparing the Two. Cantilever construction is known by projecting a form that is attached at one end to the building, while the other end juts out. Second I will discuss the symbolism of the two buildings. The symbolism of both shows that the key images of both buildings depends on the perspective from which the building is viewed. The author talks of a 'colossal artichoke These are all key images as related to the two architects.

The third discussion will focus on the iconography of the buildings which can be described as the viewer's participation in identifying and explaining what is going on in the building. As mentioned above neither building has a form that follows function and the Gehry creation especially is difficult to tell what is going on in the building.

Each perspective…… [Read More]. College Degree in Construction Management. A construction manager must be prepared for anything and everything, and a degree can give a manager a broad-based sphere of knowledge and additional flexibility when serving the needs of a client. Technical knowledge of materials and even computers may be demanded at times: They divide all required construction site activities into logical steps, estimating and budgeting the time required to meet established deadlines.

Doing this may require sophisticated scheduling and cost-estimating techniques using computers with specialized software" Construction managers, , BLS. In the case of the manager I interviewed, the project that he was currently managing had many of its features changed mid-course, as the project began to go over budget and met unexpected snags. Changing plans often results in delays, particularly when dealing with…… [Read More]. Business Lend Lease Australia The.

Some conventional building design, construction and maintenance practices create conditions that are capable of causing illness in healthy individuals or exacerbating illness in already sensitized individuals Small, There are several factors that contribute to the overall health of a building.

The Bond received many acknowledgements in regards to its design. It received 34 awards along with massive media coverage making the return on its investment far greater than any expectations that had existed.

A key change that resulted from The Bond project was the positioning of Lend Lease to take on the role of industry leader to promote development of green buildings across Australia. The sector for office buildings in Australia has its own set of unique criteria. Most office buildings are not owned by its occupants. The majority…… [Read More]. Platforms and Pyramids Have Served. Charles Green, Sutton Hoo: Merlin Press, , , http: Prometheus Books, , , http: Routledge, , , http: Sustainable design is the smart and subtle way of utilizing modern building methods and materials to achieve a more intelligent building, while using fewer resources and recycling more waste.

It is not simply a trend, nor is it only a marketing tool for 21st century developments, but rather sustainable design is a conscientious decision by an architect to take measures to protect the environment, lessen utility costs, and ensure a longer lasting product in the end. The future of arth can only be looked after by those who inhabit it, and therefore sustainability has become the most important idea today in the field of science and design. Like with many building standards, each country has its own method of measurement and evaluation to the level of sustainability achieved, and because of globalization, there have been several different international standards competing for international recognition and control over the green design process.

Influences of Gaudi's Works. Antonio Gaudi was a remarkable architect whose true value only came forward a while after he created the buildings. He has also been known as the Spanish Catalan and the symbol for Catalian Modernism.

Just as the people of the city were attempting to make their own mark in science and art, Gaudi's exceptional and unique style came. His work and the buildings he made were criticized by most of the people at first, yet their unique production and architecture added the true beauty of Barcelona. It has also been stated that the works of Gaudi are actually inseparable from Barcelona city. The buildings added to the beauty…… [Read More].

Florence Babtisitry North Doors. Among his most celebrated surviving work are the bronze doors which he created for the aptistery of the Cathedral in Florence. This paper will discuss the circumstances in which Ghiberti secured and completed the commission to design the north doors of the aptistery and analyse their composition and character.

Ghiberti's work in Florence will then be compared to that of Gianlorenzo ernini at the baroque church of Sant' Andrea al Quirinale, Rome In late the officials of the Cloth-Dealers and Refiners' Guild of Florence the Arte di Calimara announced a competition to design a set of doors for the aptistery of the Cathedral. The aptistery is a very old structure, the primary elements of which probably date to the seventh and eight centuries AD.

The exterior covering…… [Read More]. Florence Train Station in Italy. Florence train station and its qualities. The Florence train station might be expected to be designed in the classic or even art deco style, but instead, it is a classic and well-known example of Italian modernism.

Architects Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini were two of the members of this group. Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini approved of the final design of the station after a controversial competition, and many architects believe the Tuscan Group modeled their design after Viennese modern architecture and America's Frank Lloyd Wright, known for his modern and novel architecture. The Tuscan Group only designed the front of the building, the platforms, waiting areas, and such were designed by an Italian Ministry of Communications…… [Read More].

Querini Stampalia Foundation at First. The interior architecture of the Querini Stampalia Foundation also provides a connection to the more historical details of Venetian and Italian architecture while at the same time not tying itself to the restrictions of an historic reproduction.

Something as simple as a staircase has become, under Scarpa's careful design and guidance, something of strange geometric beauty that almost crosses the line into sculpture. The odd split in the stones that make up the stairs, and the spaces left in the faces of the stairs, look almost Moorish in their design. They could also be seen to draw from far more ancient sources, like the Romans who occupied Italy long before the Moors were ever heard of in Spain.

The regular geometry of the stairs makes them appear both very strong and also simple and easy to build, which would definitely have been favored qualities of older civilizations working with other…… [Read More]. Art Living the Good Life. Colin owe and Fred Koetter argued in Collage City that the designer should intervene in the existing city by adding to and adjusting what is already there, a process more like collage than any other art form.

Nowhere else do so many different people and purposes come together as in the city. No other place cries out so much for art, and is itself, an inspiration to create art. Grey water is conserved or saved to be recycled to water gardens. Land use and building orientation also plays a critical role in green architecture. A green building is located to take advantage of its climate and surroundings.

These conditions not only affect the efficiency of a building, but of the community and society as a whole. Planning for responsible land use addresses these issues through the consideration of climate, transportation, and the natural environment. An amazing amount of waste is generated by the construction of a typical building. Green buildings are designed to eliminate waste by using modular systems of construction, recycled products, and efficient use of materials. The ideal green building would create no waste either during construction or use, so the impact on the environment and resources is minimized.

Environmentally sensitive development at all levels housing, commercial and institutional appears to be a very promising approach to help achieve sustainability in these terms. Humanity shares a common need for affordable, healthy, durable, comfortable housing and workspaces designed and built to maintain or uplift the human condition.

Unfortunately this does not yet frequently occur as a rule throughout the World. Some corporate leaders such as 3M, Dupont, Amoco, GE, and others have begun to recognize the market value of environmentally sound products and manufacturing approaches.

Over the next 10 to 20 years, accelerated movement toward a more sustainable economy and infrastructure will be needed, to head off environmental problems such as global climate change, enlargement of the Ozone "hole," possible food-chain disruption and depletion of ocean fisheries, top-soil depletion and erosion, desertification, and ground water contamination. Today, sustainable design is becoming a natural part of an increasing number of buildings. As natural resources dwindle, green design will take a critical role in our built environment.

Free essays on Architecture posted on this site were donated by anonymous users and are provided for informational use only. Green buildings are designed to reduce or eliminate the dependence on fossil fuels. Additionally, green designs further help to minimize waste through the use of gray water recycling and other sustainable energy strategies. Grey water is conserved or saved to be recycled to water gardens Showed first characters.

Grey water is conserved or saved to be recycled to water gardens. Land use and building orientation also plays a critical role in green architecture Showed next characters. For your convenience Manyessays provide you with custom writing service. All papers are written from scratch by only certified and experienced writers.


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Green Architecture Essay - Green Architecture is a method to reduce the impact on our environment by using natural resources like energy, water, and the materials that are used in the structure recycled materials or the fixtures used in the home with energy saving features, as well as making a healthier environment.

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Free Essay: Green Architecture Green Architecture began with the first Earth Day in , and has grown in popularity as awareness of the earth’s many.

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Free Essay: Green Architecture is a method to reduce the impact on our environment by using natural resources like energy, water, and the materials that are. Green Architecture Green architecture is an approach to building which has become more popular in the last 25 to 30 years. Also known as sustainable design, green architecture is a method of design that minimizes the .

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Green architecture is an approach to building which has become more popular in the last 25 to 30 years. Also known as sustainable design, green architecture is a method of design that minimizes the impact of building on the environment. The free Architecture research paper (Green Architecture essay) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service. If you need fresh and competent research / writing on Architecture, use the professional writing service offered by our company.